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In college football, these things are targeting fouls, per the NCAA’s rulebook:
Making “forcible contact against an opponent with the helmet crown,” or the top of the tackler’s head.
Making “forcible contact to the head or neck area of a defenseless opponent.”
A targeting foul is an auto-ejection, and if it occurs in the second half, it includes a suspension for the first half of the following game.
A “defenseless opponent” includes, but isn’t limited to, a player:
in the act of, or having just thrown, a pass
who’s catching a pass or kick (or trying to) and hasn’t had time to become a “ball carrier.”
who’s in the act of kicking, or has just kicked
on the ground, or a player out of the play
who gets blind-side blocked
who has the ball and has had his forward progress stopped
who has the ball and is sliding or given himself up
A QB after he’s thrown a pick or someone’s fumbled the ball away
For a play to be targeting, it also has to have at least one “indicator.”
Launching, or “leaving his feet to attack an opponent by an upward and forward thrust of the body to make forcible contact in the head or neck area”
A crouch and upward thrust to make head or neck contact, even if the hitter still has feet on the ground
Leading with the “helmet, shoulder, forearm, fist, hand or elbow to attack with forcible contact at the head or neck area”
“Lowering the head before attacking by initiating forcible contact with the crown of the helmet”
I understand the intent of the rule-- I just have no idea how they are calling this.